Tag: feedback

Better Feedback for Scenario-Based eLearning Presentation

If you weren’t able to attend my session at the Learning Solutions Conference in Orlando, you can still hear me speaking on this topic. This recording is from a virtual version of the same presentation which I gave to the Online Network of Independent Learning Professionals on March 1 to prepare for the conference.

If you’re reading this in email or RSS and the video doesn’t appear above, try watching it directly on YouTube.

Watch for my next post where I’ll share some of the things I learned at the conference.

Interested in more on this topic? Read all my posts on Storytelling and Scenarios, including several on using feedback to support learning.

Learning Solutions Conference & Expo

Better Feedback for Scenario-Based eLearning Session Trailer

I’m presenting at the eLearning Guild’s Learning Solutions Conference again this year on “Better Feedback for Scenario-Based eLearning.”

You can watch a two-minute trailer for my session (if the video isn’t embedded below, watch it on YouTube).

When you create a scenario, you work hard to make it realistic and relevant for your learners. Unfortunately, even otherwise engaging scenarios sometimes include abstract feedback like “Incorrect. Please try again.” Simply saying the choice is right or wrong can make learners lose interest and focus, and it doesn’t help them learn from their mistakes.

You will learn how to show learners the consequences of their decisions rather than telling them they’re right or wrong in scenario-based eLearning. This is the difference between “intrinsic feedback” and “instructional feedback.” We will explore several different options for intrinsic feedback, such as progress meters, character responses, and environmental changes. You’ll learn guidelines for when to use immediate feedback and when to delay the feedback in scenarios. We’ll discuss how to design feedback to meet the needs of both novice and expert learners. You’ll also learn when direct instructional feedback is beneficial for learning.

In this presentation, you’ll learn:

  • multiple methods to show the consequences of decisions in scenarios
  • when to use immediate or delayed feedback
  • how to provide appropriate feedback for novice and expert learners
  • when to use intrinsic feedback (showing consequences) and instructional feedback (direct coaching)
  • how to work with SMEs to get information to provide realistic consequences
  • how to write better feedback for short scenarios and complex branching scenarios

Read More about Feedback

This session draws from several previous blog posts (as well as some additional information from other sources).

If you’re attending the Learning Solutions Conference, I hope to see you there!

Using Time as Scenario Feedback

Nicole is creating a branching scenario practicing communication techniques for nutrition counselors to better understand their clients’ goals. She has written a simulated conversation between a counselor and a client. Her SME, Brian, provided this feedback after reviewing the prototype.

The conversation overall does a good job giving plausible choices for questions and showing realistic responses from the client. I want this to be really exciting for learners, like a game. Let’s add a timer for each decision. That way, they’ll be motivated to answer quickly and keep pushing through the scenario.

What do you think? How should Nicole respond to Brian?

A. That’s a great idea! I think that will enhance the learner experience.

B. I’m not sure. Let me do some research.

C. Timing might not be the best form of feedback for this particular course.

Remember your answer; we’ll come back to this question at the end of the post.

Using Time as Scenario Feedback

When Time is Effective

Time can be a very effective consequence in some learning situations. Check out the Lifesaver training on what to do in emergency situations for an example with effective use of time as feedback.

In the first scenario with Jake, you help someone in cardiac arrest. Each question has a 5 second timer, and you are scored for both accuracy and speed.

6/6 Right First Time - Avg Speed 1.32s

Later in the scenario, you simulate performing CPR by pressing two keys on your keyboard in the same rhythm as CPR. While you practice, you see a scale from good to bad showing how close you are to the ideal timing. This lets you adjust your rhythm. After you finish the 30 seconds of simulated CPR, you see a percentage score for your accuracy.

Scale showing good and bad for speed

This feedback works in the Lifesaver training because timing really is a critical part of the skill being taught. Speed of response matters in these emergency situations, as does knowing the right rhythm for CPR.

Time can work for other skills too, like manufacturing, making sandwiches in a chain restaurant, or safety training.

When Time is Counterproductive

If the skill you’re practicing and assessing requires critical thinking and careful consideration, measuring time can be counterproductive. For simulated conversations where you want learners to pause and think about their options, it’s better to not use a timer.

You might be thinking, “But in a real conversation, people need to think quickly. Doesn’t that mean we should use timers?” That’s a question about fluency, which requires more practice over time. If your goal is to get people to that point of fluency, you might add a timer, but not for the initial practice. Teach the skill without a timer first, then provide additional practice opportunities to build fluency and speed in the skill.

Do Timers Improve Motivation?

Does a timer increase motivation for getting the right answer? Maybe, if the learners are already motivated prior to starting and time makes sense in the context of the activity. Many games use time as a way to keep players engaged and excited.

I suspect in practice that unnecessary timers encourage people to guess randomly for whatever they can click fastest. Time may actually decrease learners’ motivation to be truly cognitively engaged with the learning experience. They may be more motivated just to click and get through it quickly than to read carefully and understand their decisions.

Accessibility

Timers can create challenges for accessibility. Learners with visually impairments who use a screen reader and keyboard navigation will generally need more time to answer. Learners with  mobility impairment may have trouble manipulating a mouse or keyboard quickly. Depending on your audience, adding timers may prevent some learners from being successful in your elearning courses, even if they could do the real task (like having a conversation) without problem.

Revisiting the Communication Scenario Example

Think back to Nicole’s scenario at the beginning of this post. She’s teaching communication skills to nutrition counselors, using a simulated conversation. Her SME, Brian, suggested adding a timer.

What do you think? Does a timer seem helpful in this situation?

Probably not. In this training, it’s more important for learners to think carefully about their choices and responses than to be speedy. Feedback like the expression of the client or a scale showing the client’s motivation to change their eating behavior would be more beneficial than feedback on how quick they are.

Your Examples?

Time can work as feedback in learning scenarios, but it should be used sparingly, and only when it is actually relevant to the skill being practiced or assessed.

Do you have any examples of time used successfully as feedback in a scenario? I’d love to see some more samples. Share them in the comments.

 

ID and eLearning Links (12/3/17)

  • This is the link I send people to debunk the blanket claims about “people forget X% after Y time.” The reality is that how much people forget depends on who your audience is, what they’re learning, and how you train them.

    tags:training instructionaldesign research myth

    • The amount a learner will forget varies depending on many things. We as learning professionals will be more effective if we make decisions based on a deep understanding of how to minimize forgetting and enhance remembering.

    • To be specific, when we hear statements like, “People will forget 60% of what they learned within 7 days,” we should ignore such advice and instead reflect on our own superiority and good looks until we are decidedly pleased with ourselves.

    • Many of the experiments reviewed in this report showed clearly that learning methods matter. For example, in the Bahrick 1979 study, the best learning methods produced an average forgetting score of -29% forgetting, whereas the worst learning methods produced forgetting at 47%, a swing of 76% points.

  • Mini-scenarios and branching scenarios provide better assessment than traditional multiple choice, but this provides some other options for deeper assessment that can still be scored by a computer.

    tags:assessment scenario e-learning instructionaldesign feedback

Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.

Instructional Design and E-Learning Links

What to Write First in Branching Scenarios

Writing a branching scenario can be intimidating or overwhelming. Unlike a linear course, it’s not as easy to know where to start writing. Do you write the endings first? Do you write all the mistakes first? Do you start at the beginning and then flesh out each path as you write those choices?

I have found that it’s easiest to write the ideal path from start to finish first. I note decision points and sometimes draft bad choices along the way, but I don’t fully write anything else until I finish the ideal path.

What to Write First in Branching Scenarios

Writing the Ideal Path from the Outline

In my last post, I explained how I create an outline of the steps in the scenario. This is my plot outline for the story if learners take the “ideal path,” making the best decision at every step. For each step in the outline, create a situation in which the learner must choose to take that action. You create a decision point where the best choice is the first step in your outline.

Write the First Decision

Building on the example from my last post, a course on screening potential consulting clients, I have a process with 4 steps.

  1. Send client initial screening questions.
  2. Review client responses for fit and feasibility.
  3. Learn more about client needs during preliminary phone call.
  4. Propose a short road mapping engagement.

Because I did that planning in advance, I know exactly what I’m writing first: a decision where the right choice is sending the client initial screening questions.

Sophie receives an email from a prospective client, Robert.

Hello Sophie,

My company has 4 classroom training courses we’d like to convert to online. One of them is a half day course; the others range from one day to four days long. Can you please tell me what you would charge to convert these courses to online?

Regards,

Robert

What should Sophie do?

    1. Send Robert a price estimate.
    2. Send Robert some client screening questions.
    3. [[Some other OK choice TBD]]

Write the Remaining Ideal Decisions and Consequences

Once you have the first step written, the next thing you will write is the consequence from making that best decision in step one. In this example, the prospective client will reply to the email.

Robert replies with his answers to the screening questions.

[placeholder–questions and answers here]

What should Sophie do?

  1. These answers look reasonable. Schedule a call to discuss it further.
  2. [[OK choice TBD]]
  3. [[Bad choice TBD]]

Continue writing until you get to the end of the ideal path, showing the consequences for good decisions and how they lead to the next decision.

Don’t Write the Mistakes Yet

When I write my initial draft of the ideal path, I focus just on the correct or best choices first. I don’t write all of the mistakes and their consequences on the first pass through writing. As I draft choices, I might write down some of the bad choices if I already know them. For example, in step one, I know the mistake I’m trying to avoid is the first choice above of sending a price estimate without understanding the problem and scope first. However, at this stage of writing, it’s OK to just leave a placeholder for the other choices.

I find it helpful to indicate what kind of choices I still need in the placeholder. For most scenarios, the majority of decision points have a Good, OK, and Bad choice.  You can see how I noted that in my placeholders as “OK choice TBD” or “Bad choice TBD.”

Write the Ideal Ending and Feedback

At the end of the scenario, after learners have made all the correct decisions, write the ending. This should show the positive consequences of those choices. The ending should show what it looks like when people meet the learning objectives. In this example, the ending will show Sophie and Robert working together with a productive relationship.

You may also choose to include some more instructional feedback or coaching. At the end of the scenario, it can be helpful to tell people why the decisions they made were correct to reinforce what they learned.

Use Twine for Writing

I have tried a number of different tools and methods for writing branching scenarios. The open source tool Twine is my favorite for writing scenario drafts and creating quick prototypes. This makes it easy to see the connections between decision points. It’s also easy to leave placeholders for other choices that you will flesh out later.

More Reading

In my next post, I’ll describe how I write the mistakes and flesh out the rest of the scenario.

You might also be interested in my other posts on branching scenarios.