Tag: Cathy Moore

Don’t Restart Scenario-Based Learning, Go Back

In my previous posts, I shared tips for managing the complexity of branching scenarios and some ideas on how long to let learners go down the wrong path. At some point in that wrong path, you have to redirect learners.

The question is: do you restart the scenario from the beginning or do you go back partway, maybe even just one single step?

Restart or Go Back?

Restart

Many scenarios I write have at least one short path of wrong decisions. This path usually starts with a poor choice. I give learners the option to correct their mistake and get onto a better path. However, if they make multiple wrong choices without ever making a good one, I force them to restart.

If the whole scenario is short (3-4 decisions on the ideal path), I usually just force a restart after each ending.

Back One Step

Most of the time, especially in longer scenarios, you can allow people to back up in the scenario rather than restarting from the very beginning. If learners make 4 correct decisions in a row but have a mistake in step 5, do they really need to go back to the beginning? Maybe they just need to jump back one step to where they made a mistake.

Cathy Moore uses this approach in many of her scenarios. For example, in this Ethics Training example, you can jump back to the previous decision. She shows this with a “Go Back” link. Sometimes you can only go back after reading feedback (“What happened?”).

Back to a Checkpoint

If your scenario allows people to make multiple wrong choices, you might have “checkpoints” where you return to. Let’s say that Joanna makes 3 correct choices, followed by 3 incorrect ones. If there’s a checkpoint after 3 choices, she can jump back to that point.

Think about video games. If your character dies in level 8, you don’t have to go back and play through levels 1 through 7 again. You either start at level 8 (a checkpoint) or right before you died (back one step).

Mix it up

You can use these techniques together in the same scenario. Some paths might lead to a restart, while minor errors might just return to one step earlier. It’s not an all or nothing question.

Can You Please Help Me?

Can you do me a favor? If you have a question about how to create branching scenarios, can you ask it in the comments? (If you’re reading this in email, feel free to reply and ask privately.) I’ll reply to every question asked. You might also see your question in a future blog post.

Managing the Complexity of Branching Scenarios

On reddit, someone asked how to manage the complexity of branching scenarios and keep them from growing out of control. One of the issues with branching scenarios is that you can get exponential growth. If each choice has 3 options, you end up with 9 slides after just 2 choices, and 27 after 3 choices. This is 40 pages total with only 3 decisions per path. For most projects, that’s more complexity than you want or need.

Branching scenario with exponential growth

So how do you manage this complexity?

Use Twine

One way to make this branching easier to manage is by creating your scenarios in Twine. Twine makes it very easy to draft scenarios and check how all the connections flow together. No matter how complex your scenario is, Twine makes it easier to create it. Cathy Moore has an example of a scenario she built in Twine. This scenario has 57 total decision points, but it only took her 8 hours to create.

You can use Twine as your initial prototype, or you can use it as your final product. I have used Twine as my initial draft and prototype, then exported everything to Word as a storyboard for developers to build the final version in Storyline.

Planning a Scenario

Before I sit down to write a scenario, I always know my objectives. What are you teaching or assessing?

I usually have an idea of how long the ideal or perfect path will be. If you have a multi-step process, that’s your ideal path. If there’s going to be 4 decision points on the shortest path, I know what those are before I start writing.

I also usually know at least some of the decision points based on errors or mistakes I need to address.

There’s a limit to how much you can plan before you just start writing it out though. I find it’s easier to just open up Twine and figure it out within that system.

Allow Opportunities to Fix Mistakes

One trick for managing the potentially exponential growth is by giving learners a chance to get back on the right path if they make a minor error. If they make 2 or 3 errors in a row, they get to an ending and have to restart the whole thing.

For example, maybe you’re teaching a communication skill where they should start with an open-ended question before launching into a sales pitch. Choice A is the open-ended question (the best choice). Choice B is a closed question (an OK choice). Choice C is jumping right into the sales pitch without asking (bad choice). After the customer response for choice B, I’d give them an opportunity to use the open-ended question (A) as their follow up. Reusing some choices helps keep it from growing out of control. In this image, reusing choices cuts the total number of pages from 40 to 20.

Flowchart for branching scenario with 20 pages Make Some Paths Shorter

Not every path needs to be the same length. In the above image, one branch from choice C is shorter. It ends after 2 choices instead of 3. You might make a short path if people make several major errors in a row. Past a certain point, it makes sense to  ask people to reset the scenario from the beginning or backtrack to a previous decision.

Good, OK, and Bad

In branching scenarios, not everything is as black and white as a clear-cut right or wrong answer. You can have good, OK, and bad choices and endings. In this example from my portfolio, green is good choices/endings, orange is OK choices/endings, and red is bad choices/endings. In this scenario, if you choose 39 (bad), you have 3 options: 40 (back on the good path, recovering from the mistake), 41 (OK), and 42 (a bad choice leading to a restart). This example has 15 endings, which is still more than I would like; if I was redoing it now I would probably collapse a few more of those endings together.

Branching scenario flowchart with good, OK, and bad choices and endings

Your Ideas?

Do you have any suggestions or tips for managing and reducing the complexity of branching scenarios? Please share in the comments.

ID and E-Learning Links (10/2/16)

Instructional Design and E-Learning Links

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ID and E-Learning Links (1/12/15)

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ID and e-Learning Links (4/20/14)

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