The MCPL literature suggests that for an FI to directly improve learning, rather than motivate learning, it has to help the recipient to reject erroneous hypotheses. Whereas correcting errors is a feature of some types of FI messages, most types of FI messages do not contain such information and therefore should not improve learning—a claim consistent with CAI research.
Moreover, even in learning situations where performance seems to benefit from FIs, learning through FIs may be inferior to learning through discovery (learning based on feedback from the task, rather than on feedback from an external agent). Task feedback may force the participant to learn task rules and recognize errors (e.g., Frese & Zapf, 1994), whereas FI may lead the participant to learn how to use the FI as a crutch, while shortcutting the need for task learning (cf. J. R. Anderson, 1987).