Adapting Resumes from Teaching to Instructional Design

Current teachers who are looking to make a career change often ask me for advice on how to adapt their resume for instructional design. Teachers already have many relevant skills for instructional design, but they don’t always know how to convey that to employers.

Principles for Adapting Teaching Resumes

    • List writing, lesson planning, and content creation first: Switch the order in which you talk about your skills and accomplishments. Instead of starting with teaching and training (even though those are the skills you use the most), put creating lesson plans and curriculum first. Emphasize all the points about writing over the ones about being in the classroom.
    • Say more about lesson planning and curriculum creation: You can probably reduce how much detail you spend on the actual teaching and focus more on the lesson plan creation. In many respects, it’s more important that you created curriculum and lesson plans to meet objectives and give students opportunities to practice skills. The fact that you then taught those lessons you created is secondary.
    • Use active verbs: Use active verbs to describe how you “designed,” “created,” or “wrote” lesson plans and “developed” curriculum, activities, and handouts.
    • Include objectives and assessment: You may want to include how you wrote objectives and assessed student performance in meeting those objectives.
    • Mention collaborative development: Talk about collaborative work. Committees are OK, but collaborative curriculum design is better if you have that kind of experience.
    • De-emphasize or eliminate course info: If your current resume talks about specific courses you taught, de-emphasize or remove that.
    • Remove or reduce standards: If your current resume mentions specific state or national standards that you are meeting, remove or reduce that. I would remove them for most corporate work, but those standards might be relevant for some highly regulated industries or for higher ed jobs where you need to meet accreditation standards.


Adapting Resumes from Teaching to Instructional Design

Example Revision

As an example, let’s look at how my resume evolved over the years. My summary for my first teaching job was pretty much just a list of what I taught, and therefore not very effective.

Original Version

Music and Band Teacher

  • General Music: Kindergarten, 1st, 3rd, and 5th grades
  • 5th grade Beginner Band and small group lessons
  • Junior High Band
  • High School Band, High School Music Appreciation and High School Pep Band

First, I summarized all of that teaching into a single bullet point.

Revision 1

  • Taught General Music, Band, and Music Appreciation for Kindergarten through High School

Next, I added a bullet point about content I created. The new bullet point comes first

Revision 2

  • Designed curriculum for a pilot high school Music Appreciation class, including readings, review worksheets, quizzes, tests, and group projects for engaged learning
  • Taught General Music, Band, and Music Appreciation for Kindergarten through High School

I followed a similar process for my second teaching position.

Revision 3

Music, Band, and Choir Teacher 2000-2002

  • Developed curriculum in collaboration with other teachers in the Specials team to ensure consistency and alignment with long-term goals
  • Measured student achievement of objectives
  • Revised plans in response to assessment of student understanding
  • Adapted instructional materials to meet varied needs, including learning disabilities
  • Provided technical assistance to fellow teachers using Excel, Word, and PowerPoint
  • Taught General Music, Band, and Chorus classes for 5th through 8th Grade

Music and Band Teacher 1999-2000

  • Designed curriculum for a pilot high school Music Appreciation class, including readings, review worksheets, quizzes, tests, and group projects for engaged learning
  • Taught General Music, Band, and Music Appreciation for Kindergarten through High School

Some of the old versions of my resume listed other skills and tasks performed. Phrases like this might be helpful in resumes as well.

Researched best practices in education to continually improve teaching.

Designed and implemented curriculum for multiple classes for varied age and ability levels.

Assessed student understanding and adapted instructional materials to meet varied needs.

Translated long-term goals into daily objectives

Looking for more info?

ID and eLearning Links (9/24/17)

Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.

Immediate and Delayed Consequences in Branching Scenarios

In branching scenarios, we can use a combination of immediate and delayed consequences and feedback. Consequences are what happens as a result of decisions; feedback is what we tell learners after decisions.

Immediate & Delayed Consequences

Use Immediate Consequences Often

Immediate consequences are the intrinsic effects of decisions. A customer who responds angrily, software that doesn’t produce the desired result, or time lost on a project could all be immediate consequences. These consequences don’t directly tell the learner, “Sorry, that was incorrect.” Learners have to perceive and understand the cues in the scenario. They have to draw conclusions based on those cues.

If your learners will need to follow cues when they apply what they’re learning, it’s helpful to provide real-world consequences in your scenario. It’s beneficial to practice interpreting cues.

Immediate consequences that simulate real-world cues can also be more engaging than the omniscient narrator dictating what you did right or wrong.  It keeps learners in the mindset of the story without hitting them over the head with a reminder that they’re learning something.

Use Immediate Feedback with Novices

Immediate feedback is different from intrinsic consequences. This is the instructional feedback or coaching that directly tells learners why their decisions are right or wrong. While this can pull people out of the “flow” of a story, immediate feedback can be helpful in some situations.

First, novice learners who are still building mental models of a topic may benefit more from immediate feedback. Novices may not have the expertise to sort through real-world cues and draw accurate conclusions from them.  Therefore, it may be more important to provide immediate feedback after each decisions in a branching scenario if your audience is new to the topic.

In his research report “Providing Learners with Feedback,” Will Thalheimer explains the benefits of immediate feedback for novices.

“On the surface of it, it just doesn’t make sense that when a learner is piecing together arrays of building blocks into a fully-formed complex concept, they wouldn’t need some sort of feedback as they build up from prerequisite concepts. If the conceptual foundation they build for themselves is wrong, adding to that faulty foundation is problematic. Feedback provided before these prerequisite mental modelettes are built should keep learners from flailing around too much. For this reason, I will tentatively recommend immediate feedback as learners build understanding.”

Provide Instructional Feedback Before a Retry

I always use feedback before restarting a scenario.  If a learner has reached an unsatisfactory ending in a scenario, it’s beneficial to do a short debrief of their decisions and what went wrong. Especially for more experienced learners, some of that feedback may be delayed from when they made the decision. You can summarize the feedback for several previous decisions on the path that led to the final decision.

This feedback should happen before they are faced with the same scenario decisions again. Otherwise, they could make the same mistakes again (reinforcing those mistakes) or simply guess without gaining understanding.

Thalheimer’s research also supports this.

“When learners get an answer wrong or practice a skill inappropriately, we ought to give them feedback before they attempt to re-answer the question or re-attempt the skill. This doesn’t necessarily mean that we should give them immediate feedback, but it does mean that we don’t want to delay feedback until after they are faced with additional retrieval opportunities.”

Use Delayed Feedback with Experienced Learners

Thalheimer notes that delayed feedback may be more effective for retention (i.e., how much do learners remember). That effect might be due to the spacing effect (that is, reviewing content multiple times, spaced out over times, is better for learning than cramming everything into a single event). The delay for feedback doesn’t have to be long; one study mentioned in Thalheimer’s report showed that delaying feedback by 10 seconds improved outcomes.

Delayed feedback may also be more appropriate for experienced learners who are improving existing skills rather than novices building new skills. Experienced learners already have mental models in place, so they don’t have the same needs for immediate correction as novices. They can get the benefit of delayed feedback.

Use Delayed Feedback with Immediate Consequences

In branching scenarios, we can use a combination of immediate intrinsic consequences (e.g., an angry customer response) and delayed instructional feedback (e.g., you didn’t acknowledge the customer’s feelings). Feedback before a retry or restart could count as delayed if it includes feedback for multiple decisions. If you let learners make 2 or 3 wrong choices before a restart, the combined feedback will effectively be delayed.

Use Delayed Consequences When Realistic

We  don’t always immediately know our mistakes are wrong in real life. Sometimes the consequence isn’t obvious right away. Sometimes it seems like a gain the short run, but causes problems in the long run. If that’s the kind of situation you’re training for, letting people continue on the wrong path for a little while makes sense. Neither limited branching nor immediate failure allow you to show delayed consequences.

Providing these delayed consequences has the advantage of better learning from delayed feedback, plus it creates a more realistic and engaging story. Delayed consequences shouldn’t be forced into a scenario where it’s not realistic, but they are a good way to show the long-term effects of actions.

Think about how delayed consequences could be shown in these examples:

  • A bartender gives away many free drinks. The immediate consequence is that the customers are happy, but the delayed consequence is a loss of profit for the bar.
  • A sales associate sells a customer a product that is less expensive but meets the customer’s needs. The immediate consequence is that the sales associate makes less commission that day, but the delayed consequence is that the customer is loyal and refers 2 friends. In this case, the total commission earned is higher even though the immediate sale was lower.
  • A doctor could skip a screening question with a patient. The immediate consequence is finding something that looks like the problem, but the delayed consequence is the actual underlying problem remaining.
  • A manager asks an ID to create training. The ID gets started building it right away, trusting that the team requesting the training knows their needs. The immediate consequence is a happy manager, but the delayed consequence is ineffective training that doesn’t actually solve the business problem.
  • If you’re teaching ethics, a small ethical lapse early in the scenario might not seem like a big deal. The immediate consequence might be meeting a deadline or increased recognition.  In the long run, that small lapse leads a continued need to cover up your actions. The Lab: Avoiding Research Misconduct is an example with delayed consequences in some paths.

Looking for More?

Read more about branching scenarios:


ID and eLearning Links (9/3/17)

Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.

Instructional Design and E-Learning Links

Don’t Restart Scenario-Based Learning, Go Back

In my previous posts, I shared tips for managing the complexity of branching scenarios and some ideas on how long to let learners go down the wrong path. At some point in that wrong path, you have to redirect learners.

The question is: do you restart the scenario from the beginning or do you go back partway, maybe even just one single step?

Restart or Go Back?


Many scenarios I write have at least one short path of wrong decisions. This path usually starts with a poor choice. I give learners the option to correct their mistake and get onto a better path. However, if they make multiple wrong choices without ever making a good one, I force them to restart.

If the whole scenario is short (3-4 decisions on the ideal path), I usually just force a restart after each ending.

Back One Step

Most of the time, especially in longer scenarios, you can allow people to back up in the scenario rather than restarting from the very beginning. If learners make 4 correct decisions in a row but have a mistake in step 5, do they really need to go back to the beginning? Maybe they just need to jump back one step to where they made a mistake.

Cathy Moore uses this approach in many of her scenarios. For example, in this Ethics Training example, you can jump back to the previous decision. She shows this with a “Go Back” link. Sometimes you can only go back after reading feedback (“What happened?”).

Back to a Checkpoint

If your scenario allows people to make multiple wrong choices, you might have “checkpoints” where you return to. Let’s say that Joanna makes 3 correct choices, followed by 3 incorrect ones. If there’s a checkpoint after 3 choices, she can jump back to that point.

Think about video games. If your character dies in level 8, you don’t have to go back and play through levels 1 through 7 again. You either start at level 8 (a checkpoint) or right before you died (back one step).

Mix it up

You can use these techniques together in the same scenario. Some paths might lead to a restart, while minor errors might just return to one step earlier. It’s not an all or nothing question.

Can You Please Help Me?

Can you do me a favor? If you have a question about how to create branching scenarios, can you ask it in the comments? (If you’re reading this in email, feel free to reply and ask privately.) I’ll reply to every question asked. You might also see your question in a future blog post.